“Neuroproteomics” is the term used for application of proteomics to the study of the nervous system and its disorders with the aim of developing diagnostics and therapeutics. In this article, the author describes the application of proteomic technologies and the development of tests for neurologic disorders by examining proteins in blood and urine. Because proteins are the targets for action of most drugs, an insight into protein-based mechanisms of neurologic disorders will enable discovery of more relevant drugs for central nervous system disorders.
• Neuroproteomics, the application of proteomics to the study of the nervous system, is making an important contribution to understanding the pathomechanism of neurologic disorders.
• Discovery of protein biomarkers of neurologic disorders is a basis for diagnosis, monitoring of disease, as well as development of drugs.
• Neuroproteomics has made important contributions to study of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer disease, in which a protein-based reliable test has been developed to diagnose the disease from cerebrospinal fluid examination.
Historical note and terminology
The term “proteomics” indicates proteins expressed by a genome and is the systematic analysis of protein profiles of tissues. The term "proteome" refers to all proteins produced by a species, much as the genome is the entire set of genes. Unlike the genome, the proteome varies with time and is defined as "the proteins present in 1 sample (tissue, organism, or cell culture) at a certain point in time.” Proteomes of cells are dynamic and are directly affected by environmental factors, such as stress or drug treatment, or as a result of aging and disease. Proteomics parallels the related field of genomics. Approximately 30% to 50% of the genes in mammals are expressed in the nervous system (Fountoulakis 2004). Now that the human genome has been sequenced, we face the greater challenge of making use of this information for improving healthcare and discovering new drugs.
“Neuroproteomics” is the term used for application of proteomics to the study of the nervous system and its disorders with the aim of developing diagnostics and therapeutics (Jain 2002). It is one of the several “omics” technologies that are being applied in neurology (Jain 2013).
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