Sciatic neuropathy

Sameera Salman Ghauri MBBS (Dr. Ghauri of University of Texas Houston Health Science Center has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Thy Nguyen MD (Dr. Nguyen of the University of Texas Health Science Center has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Kazim Sheikh MD (Dr. Sheikh of University of Texas Houston Health Science Center has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Randolph W Evans MD, editor. (Dr. Evans of Baylor College of Medicine received honorariums from Allergan, Avanir, DepoMed, and Pernix for speaking engagements and honorariums from Alder, Lilly, and Promius for advisory board membership.)
Originally released November 21, 1997; last updated June 1, 2016; expires June 1, 2019

This article includes discussion of sciatic neuropathy, sciatic mononeuropathy, and sciatic nerve injury. The foregoing terms may include synonyms, similar disorders, variations in usage, and abbreviations.

Overview

Sciatic neuropathy is an important consideration in the patient with foot drop. Important causes of this mononeuropathy include total hip arthroplasty, unusual forms of leg or buttock compression, neoplastic infiltration, and a heterogeneous group of other disorders. In this update, the authors summarize data regarding diagnostic modalities and reported etiologies of sciatic neuropathy.

Key points

 

• Sciatic neuropathy is a recognized complication of hip procedures (particularly total hip arthroplasty), hip fractures, and trauma.

 

• Partial sciatic nerve injuries often affect the peroneal division out of proportion to the tibial division.

 

• Electrodiagnostic testing is crucial to evaluate for subclinical involvement of tibial innervated muscles in sciatic neuropathy, which may be subtly involved on clinical examination.

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