Dystonia


An involuntary movement disorder characterized by abnormal twisting, tremor, or posturing of a body part. Dystonias can be focal (involving a single body part), segmental (involving adjacent body parts), or generalized. Dystonias are most frequently idiopathic, but can occur secondary to neuroleptic use (tardive dystonia), structural lesions in the brain or spinal cord, or head trauma. Dystonias can also be a part of one of many inherited neurologic syndromes, such as Wilson disease, or occur in patients with Parkinson disease, often as a sign of dopaminergic overdosing. Treatments include trials of oral medications (such as anticholinergics, benzodiazepines, and baclofen) as well as some surgical approaches (such as selective denervation for torticollis and myectomy for blepharospasm).