Dr. Murray of Queens College & The Graduate Center of the City University of New York and JFK Medical Center has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Dr. Scorpio of Queens College & The Graduate Center of the City University of New York and Columbia Memorial Health has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Dr. Bono of Queens College & The Graduate Center of the City University of New York and Barrow Neurological Institute has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Dr. Twaite of Queens College & The Graduate Center of the City University of New York and Burke Rehabilitation Hospital and the Montefiore Medical System has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Dr. Myers of Queens College & The Graduate Center of the City University of New York and the Northport VA Medical Center has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Ms. Schwen Blackett of The Ohio State University has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Dr. Filangieri of Queens College & The Graduate Center of the City University of New York and New York University Winthrop Hospital has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Dr. Meltzer of Queens College & The Graduate Center of the City University of New York and Northwell Health has no relevant financial relationships to disclose)
Dr. Borod of Queens College & The Graduate Center of the City University of New York has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
This article includes discussion of aprosodia, prosody, prosodic deficits, aprosody, dysprosody, anomic aprosodia, conduction aprosodia, crossed aprosodia, global aprosodia, mixed aprosodia, motor aprosodia, sensory aprosodia, transcortical motor aprosodia, and transcortical sensory aprosodia. The foregoing terms may include synonyms, similar disorders, variations in usage, and abbreviations
Aprosodia is a disorder characterized by the inability to express or comprehend affective or nonaffective tonal aspects of speech. Although this disorder is often the result of a cerebrovascular episode, individuals with various neurologic or psychiatric illnesses may present with disturbances in prosody. In addition to providing information pertaining to the characteristics and classification of the aprosodias, the authors of this clinical article present information related to assessment, prognosis, and treatment of the disorder. Evidence regarding the neuroanatomy and theoretical underpinnings of aprosodia is presented. This article has been updated to better reflect current research on the neurologic manifestations of aprosodia (eg, presence of aprosodia in autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit disorder, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), the psychiatric manifestations of aprosodia (eg, presence of aprosodia in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder), the prevalence of the disorder (eg, manifestations across cultures and across the lifespan), and evidence-based behavioral and nonbehavioral interventions for the treatment of aprosodic deficits in adults and children.
• Aprosodia is a disorder characterized by the inability to express or comprehend prosody, the melodic aspects of speech.
• Aprosodia can result from brain injury, neurologic disorders, and certain psychiatric conditions.
• Aprosodia is frequently described as arising from right-hemisphere neocortical damage, but can also occur with left-hemisphere damage and with subcortical damage.
• Aprosodia has varied manifestations. Prosodic dysfunction can be described at the level of functional communication (ie, impact on affective versus nonaffective speech) or at the level of acoustic processing (eg, deficits in perceiving or generating pitch, timing, tempo, etc.).
Historical note and terminology
Monrad-Krohn described prosody as the “melody of language” (Monrad-Krohn 1947). More specifically, prosody refers to the pitch, volume, rate, and tempo of speech (Pell et al 2006) and conveys both affective and nonaffective information. Affective prosody communicates the emotional meaning of the utterance as well as the affective disposition of the speaker (Blonder et al 1991). Affective prosody thereby helps to convey whether the speaker is angry, happy, sad, and so forth. Ross and colleagues, who draw from Monrad-Krohn's original classifications, further characterize affective prosody as a combination of emotional prosody, the insertion of emotion into speech, and what is termed “intellectual prosody,” or that which communicates the speaker's attitudes that modify the meaning of speech, allowing the speaker to communicate affective attitudes such as earnestness or sarcasm (Monrad-Krohn 1947; Ross et al 2013).
Nonaffective prosody communicates the linguistic and other nonaffective aspects of speech, thereby clarifying the syntactic structure and semantic intention of an utterance (Rymarczyk and Grabowska 2007). For example, nonaffective prosody performs functions such as cueing the listener as to whether the utterance is a statement, question, or command and differentiates lexical meaning (eg, CON-vict vs. con-VICT). According to Ross, nonaffective prosody can also be defined as including paralinguistic elements, such as grunts or sighs (termed “inarticulate prosody”), and dialectical or regional characteristics of speech that reflect a speaker's geographic origins (Ross 2013). Aprosodia is, therefore, a disorder in which an individual is unable to express or comprehend affective or nonaffective prosodic components of language.
Although the “dominant” hemisphere (most generally, the left hemisphere) is clearly responsible for most linguistic functions, to our knowledge, John Hughlings Jackson and François Baillarger were the first to suggest that the nondominant (most generally, the right) hemisphere might mediate some components of language and speech (Baillarger 1865; Jackson 1874; 1878-1879). This was based, in part, on observations that utterances of patients with aphasia with left-hemisphere lesions still contained affective intonation despite the patients' lack of propositional speech (Jackson 1880). Borod and colleagues provide a review of this early literature (Borod et al 2000a). The idea that the nondominant hemisphere could mediate some components of language and speech was not systematically examined until nearly a century later when Heilman, Scholes, and Watson studied the comprehension of the affective components of speech in patients with unilateral temporoparietal lesions of either the left or right hemisphere (Heilman et al 1975). In this study, patients were presented with recordings of sentences and asked to identify either the speech content or emotional tone. Results indicated that both patient groups were able to identify the content of the sentence, but only the group with right-hemisphere temporoparietal lesions was unable to correctly identify the affective prosody. Soon after, it was demonstrated that the expression of affective prosody was impaired in patients with right-hemisphere damage for both posed (Tucker et al 1977; Shapiro and Danly 1985) and spontaneous (Ross and Mesulam 1979; Borod et al 1985) conditions. Although subsequent research has shown affective and nonaffective prosodic impairments in the presence of both left- and right-hemisphere damage, these early studies helped establish that the nondominant hemisphere plays a significant role in the production and comprehension of speech.
Based on these and other findings of patients with deficits in understanding or expressing affective prosody, Ross suggested that these deficits be called “aprosodia” (Ross 1981). He also proposed that the classification of the aprosodias parallel the aphasias; this classification system is described in the Clinical Manifestations section.
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