Epilepsy: treatment in low and middle income countries

Michelle Braslavsky DO (

Dr. Braslavsky of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia has no relevant relationships to disclose.

Michael R Sperling MD (

Dr. Sperling of Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia received research contracts from SK Life Science, UCB, Takeda, Neurelis, Engage Therapeutics, Medtronic, Eisai, Cavion, Xenon, and Cerevel; a consulting fee from Medtronic; and speaker honorariums from Eisai and UCB.

John M Stern MD, editor. (

Dr. Stern, Director of the Epilepsy Clinical Program at the University of California in Los Angeles, received honorariums from Eisai, Greenwich, SK Life Sciences, and UCB Pharma as an advisor and from Eisai, Greenwich, LivaNova, Neurelis, and UCB Pharma as a lecturer.

Originally released October 14, 2009; last updated: January 2 2021; expires January 2 2024


About 80% of persons with epilepsy inhabit low and middle income countries (LMICs). Studies have shown that up to 70% of newly diagnosed children and adults with epilepsy are successfully treated with antiepileptic drugs. In lower income regions, up to 75% of people with epilepsy may not receive the treatment they need. The treatment gap in these regions needs to be narrowed to decrease morbidity and mortality due to epilepsy.

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