K K Jain MD (

Dr. Jain is a consultant in neurology and has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Originally released July 6, 1999; last updated November 2, 2020; expires November 2, 2023

Historical note and terminology

In 1998 the United States Food and Drug Administration approved modafinil as a wake-promoting agent (to improve wakefulness in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy). This was the first time in over 40 years such a drug was approved. In 2010 the European Medicines Agency withdrew the indication of modafinil for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, shift-work sleep disorder, and idiopathic hypersomnia.

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