Dr. Talman of Oregon Health Sciences University has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Dr. Bissonnette of Boston University Medical Center has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Dr. Provini of the University of Bologna and IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna received speakers' fees from Eisai Japan and Italfarmaco and consulting fees from Zambon.)
This article includes discussion of sleep-related movement disorders, movement disorders in sleep, restless leg syndrome, Willis Ekbom disease, periodic limb movement disorder, periodic movement disorder of sleep, nocturnal myoclonus, sleep-related leg cramps, leg cramps, charley horse, nocturnal leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism, nocturnal bruxism, nocturnal tooth-grinding, tooth-clenching, sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder, body-rocking, head-banging, head-rolling, body-rolling, jactatio capitis nocturna, jactatio corporis, nocturna, rhythmie du sommeil, benign sleep myoclonus of infancy, benign neonatal sleep myoclonus, propriospinal myoclonus at sleep onset, spinal myoclonus, axial myoclonus, sleep-related movement disorder due to medical disorder, and sleep-related movement disorder due to medication or substance. The foregoing terms may include synonyms, similar disorders, variations in usage, and abbreviations.
Movement disorders are classically thought to resolve during sleep. Sleep-related movement disorders, however, are a subset that are characterized by their presence in sleep. This article will discuss these sleep-related movement disorders based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-3rd Edition (ICSD-3). These include restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism, sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder, benign sleep myoclonus of infancy, propriospinal myoclonus at sleep onset, sleep-related movement disorders due to medical disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders due to medication or other substance.
• Any patient suspected of having restless legs syndrome should be evaluated with serum ferritin as correction of iron-deficiency anemia may improve symptoms.
• When treating restless legs syndrome, consider a nondopaminergic medicine first, and if a dopaminergic agent is used, try the lowest effective dose or long-acting formulation.
• Periodic limb movements of sleep are associated with increased cardiovascular risk due to transient elevations in blood pressure and heart rate.
• Myoclonic movements isolated in sleep in an otherwise developmentally normal infant typically do not need treatment.
Historical note and terminology
Movement disorders of sleep have been described for centuries. Perhaps the oldest sleep-related movement disorder described is sleep bruxism, which has been recognized since the time of the Old Testament. The term “bruxism” originated from the Greek brygmos, which means gnashing of teeth, and the first scientific description of bruxism was reported in the early 1900s (Castrillon and Exposto 2018). Similarly, restless legs syndrome was first described by Sir Thomas Willis in 1685; centuries later, Karl-Axel-Ekbom first used the term “restless legs syndrome” in 1944. Because of the pioneering work of these two individuals, restless legs syndrome now shares the name Willis Ekbom Disease (Wijemanne and Ondo 2017).
In modern times, many sleep-related movement disorders are studied and treated within the specialties of both sleep medicine and movement disorder neurology. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine published the third edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3) in 2014, and it is now widely used in clinical practice to characterize sleep disorders (American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2014). The ICSD-3 recognizes seven broad categories of sleep disorders, including the following:
This article will highlight the nine sleep-related movement disorders listed in the ICSD-3 category of sleep related movement disorders. These include restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism, sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder, benign sleep myoclonus of infancy, propriospinal myoclonus at sleep onset, sleep-related movement disorders due to medical disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders due to medication or other substance. Of note, REM behavior disorder will not be addressed in this article as it is defined not as a movement disorder of sleep but rather a type of parasomnia that is associated with various movement disorders.
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