Dr. Park of New York University Langone Medical Center has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.)
Dr. Sander of the NYU School of Medicine received honorariums from CSL for consulting work.)
Dr. Evans of Baylor College of Medicine received honorariums from Allergan, Amgen, Avanir, DepoMed, Lilly, and Novartis for speaking engagements and honorariums from Alder and Promius for advisory board membership.)
This article includes discussion of suprascapular neuropathy, suprascapular nerve injury, suprascapular mononeuropathy, suprascapular nerve entrapment, and infraspinatus muscle atrophy. The foregoing terms may include synonyms, similar disorders, variations in usage, and abbreviations.
Suprascapular neuropathy is an underappreciated cause of shoulder girdle weakness and pain. The clinical and electrophysiologic techniques of diagnosis can be easily learned. Advances in correlation of nerve conduction study results with treatment choices and outcomes provide a motor-based prognostic model for suprascapular neuropathy. Both nonoperative and operative treatments are successful when properly chosen. In this update, new data regarding diagnostic modalities, etiologies, risk factors, and treatments of suprascapular neuropathy are summarized.
• Suprascapular neuropathy should be considered in patients with shoulder pain, weakness, and supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle atrophy.
• Suprascapular neuropathy could be common in patients with a history of shoulder trauma, rotator cuff tear, and in overhead sport players.
• The gold standard for the diagnosis of suprascapular neuropathy is electrodiagnostic testing.
Historical note and terminology
Suprascapular neuropathy connotes injury to the suprascapular nerve anywhere in its course, from the origin at the brachial plexus to its termination in the infraspinatus muscle. Suprascapular neuropathy is a more common cause of shoulder pain and weakness than is generally believed (Rengachary et al 1979a; Vastamaki and Goransson 1993). Despite its relatively low prevalence, it must be kept in mind as a potential cause of shoulder pain, particularly in patients where the history, physical examination, and imaging studies do not adequately explain a patient's symptoms or disability (Moen et al 2012).
Shoulder girdle neuropathy was reported as early as 1879 (Joffroy 1879), and in 1909, isolated "neuritis" of the suprascapular nerve was described (Ewald 1909). In 1926, 16 cases of suprascapular neuropathy were published in a review of war injuries, and an additional case was discussed in 1936 (Foster 1926; Thomas 1936).
In the late 1950s, Kopell and Thompson were the first to define a suprascapular neuropathy syndrome. In a series of publications, they defined pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment approaches for suprascapular nerve entrapment at the suprascapular notch (Kopell and Thompson 1959; Kopell and Thompson 1963).
Gassel was the first to publish nerve conduction study techniques for the suprascapular nerve, and Kraft further defined these methods (Gassel 1964; Kraft 1972). A report of isolated infraspinatus involvement in suprascapular neuropathy was described in 1982 (Aiello et al 1982). Increasing attention to the importance of the various presentations and treatments of suprascapular neuropathy has continued to the present.
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