Cortical dysplasias

A spectrum of derangements in the development of the cerebral cortex that cause epilepsy in infants and children. It is associated with a range of morphologic features and with multiple putative etiologic factors including genetic and environmental influences. Cortical dysplasia is best evaluated microscopically, and can be characterized with regard to nine specific and easily identifiable microscopic abnormalities that may be present: (1) cortical laminar disorganization, (2) neurons in the neocortical molecular layer, (3) single heterotopic white matter neurons, (4) persistent remnants of the subpial granule cell layer, (5) marginal glioneuronal heterotopia, (6) neuronal heterotopia, (7) polymicrogyria, (8) neuronal cytomegaly with cytoskeletal abnormalities, and (9) balloon cells.