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Axial flair image in young girl 5 years after subtotal tumor resection shows treatment-related changes but no evidence of disease. (Contributed by Dr. Alyssa Reddy.)
Oct. 11, 2020
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Auditory hallucinations associated with lesions of the central nervous system may be simple or complex. Those resulting from irritative processes (usually seizures) are typically brief, whereas those resulting from release mechanisms are typically prolonged. Initial ictal symptoms are often closely related to the physiological functions of the cortical circuits involved with the seizure locus and, consequently, such symptoms can provide localizing information.
Oct. 21, 2020
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Dec. 28, 2020
Headache & Pain
Although usually benign, headache can herald serious intracranial disease. Neuroimaging must be considered whenever secondary causes of headache are suspected. The “SNOOP-4” mnemonic provides a list of red flags that would suggest secondary headache and indicate a need for further evaluation, usually with neuroimaging. Neuroimaging should also be strongly considered in unusual primary headaches.
Sep. 01, 2020
Epilepsy & Seizures
Aug. 12, 2021
Reflex syncope is a neurally-mediated transient loss of consciousness that occurs when the body inappropriately reacts to triggers such as intense emotion, pain, or trauma, sudden postural changes, or others. Vasovagal syncope is the most common form. Triggering of the cardiovascular reflexes produces vasodilation or bradycardia, with a resultant fall in blood pressure and cerebral perfusion.
May. 15, 2021
Toxic peripheral neuropathy is most commonly encountered as an adverse effect of medications, but environmental and occupational exposure can also result in toxic neuropathy. There is generally a temporal and dose-response relationship between symptoms and exposure and consistency of disease in those with similar exposures. Improvement (or at least stabilization) of neuropathic symptoms should occur when exposure ceases.
Jun. 22, 2021
Erythromelalgia is characterized by episodic vasodilation associated with severe burning pain in the extremities. Primary erythromelalgia can be either familial or sporadic. Secondary erythromelalgia oftentimes presents as a symptom of an underlying disease. Although it is a chronic condition, symptoms tend to be more episodic than continuous and often occur following exposure to certain stimuli. Early recognition and diagnosis remains the cornerstone of treatment.
Feb. 18, 2021