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This T2-weighted MRI identifies white matter changes over the more superior right corona radiate in the brain of an elderly patient with diabetes and gait abnormality. (Contributed by Dr. Cory Toth.)
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Oct. 21, 2020
Epilepsy & Seizures
Jun. 30, 2021
Reflex syncope is a neurally-mediated transient loss of consciousness that occurs when the body inappropriately reacts to triggers such as intense emotion, pain, or trauma, sudden postural changes, or others. Vasovagal syncope is the most common form. Triggering of the cardiovascular reflexes produces vasodilation or bradycardia, with a resultant fall in blood pressure and cerebral perfusion.
May. 15, 2021
Defecation and micturition syncopes are forms of the so-called situational syncopes, which occur immediately after precipitating situations, such as urination and defecation. There may be associated brief jerking or rhythmic movements, but there is no associated incontinence, tongue biting, or postictal state. Recovery usually occurs within seconds without vasomotor or other sequelae. Patients are amnestic for the period of lost consciousness.
Hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon endocrine deficiency disease resulting from decreased function of the parathyroid glands, with underproduction of parathyroid hormone. It typically presents with manifestations of hypocalcemia because this interferes with normal muscle contraction and nerve conduction. Affected individuals can experience perioral and acral paresthesias, twitching in the facial muscles, muscle cramps, and tetany, but many also report fatigue, chronic headaches, insomnia, bone pain, and crampy abdominal pain.
Jan. 23, 2021
Craniosynostosis, the premature closure of cranial sutures, has been known to exist for centuries, but modern surgical management has only emerged and
May. 25, 2019
Headache & Pain
Primary stabbing headache is usually a benign self-limited primary headache disorder, consisting of sharp stabs of head pain. Most primary stabbing headache patients have very brief attacks (less than 3 seconds). Age, gender, and whether the headache is comorbid with migraine influence the frequency of primary stabbing headache. Primary stabbing headache patients don’t have accompanying autonomic symptoms.
Feb. 28, 2021
Anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome represents a group of disorders that share a common serological profile. The classical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia continues to be the commonest presentation in Miller Fisher syndrome. Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis represents the other end of the spectrum where patients present not only with ataxia and ophthalmoplegia, but also features that suggest involvement of the CNS, such as altered levels of consciousness and brisk reflexes.
Nov. 30, 2020