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Longitudinal section. H.E. HCV and peripheral neuropathy. Nonnecrotizing vasculitis in the epineurium. Original magnification: x 20. (Contributed by Dr. Jean-Michel Vallat.)
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Sep. 04, 2021
Jul. 20, 2021
Sydenham chorea is the most common cause of acute chorea in children worldwide and is characterized by a random and continuous flow of contractions that spreads rapidly and becomes generalized. Evidence suggests that Sydenham chorea results from Streptococcus-induced antibodies that cross-react with central nervous system antigens. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as obsessions, compulsions, hyperactivity, and attention disorder, as well as depression, are often present in patients with Sydenham chorea.
Apr. 07, 2021
Epilepsy & Seizures
The ILAE has defined epilepsy conceptually as “a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by the neurobiological, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition. A definition of epilepsy requires the occurrence of at least one epileptic seizure." The epilepsies are divided into focal, generalized, and combined but have a multifactorial classification that also considers seizure type, etiology, comorbidity, and syndrome when present.
Feb. 02, 2021
Gram-negative bacilli are a common cause of neonatal meningitis, with Escherichia coli K1 being the most common organism. They rarely cause meningitis in adults without risk factors. Clinical features of Gram-negative meningitis are typical of other meningeal infections, including fever, headache, photophobia, neck stiffness, and altered mentation, as well as signs of meningeal irritation in severe case. Seizures, focal signs such as cranial nerve palsies, and focal neurologic deficits may occur.
Apr. 03, 2021
Congenital muscular dystrophy presents at birth or within the first months of life with weakness, hypotonia, and delayed motor milestones, as well as contractures, and mental retardation in some cases. Clinical severity ranges from milder forms with survival into adulthood, to severe presentations with substantially shortened lifespan and frequent association with cerebral involvement.
Nov. 23, 2020
Visual-sensitive seizures are provoked by photic, pattern and other visual stimuli, alone or in combination. They are the commonest type of reflex seizures and are mainly triggered by video games, television, and flickering lights of discotheques. The role of EEG is fundamental in identification of the offending stimuli, with significant clinical and pathophysiological implications.
Mar. 10, 2020
General Child Neurology
Jul. 18, 2020