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(Contributed by Dr. Pallavi P Patwari.)
Oct. 21, 2020
Hemifacial spasm is a peripherally induced movement disorder characterized by repetitive clonic or more sustained spasms that synchronously affect muscles innervated by the facial nerve. Compression of the facial nerve at its junction with the brainstem, by vascular or other structures, appears to cause secondary hyperexcitability of the facial nucleus that seems to underlie most cases of hemifacial spasm.
Apr. 26, 2020
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
High-dose intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) has been used for the treatment of autoimmune disorders since 1981, starting with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. IVIG is a safe and effective therapy for Guillain-Barré syndrome, but some cases may not respond to it or may get worse. IVIG is the preferred first-line treatment for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and an adjunctive therapy for myasthenia gravis where no other therapy is effective.
Mar. 08, 2021
May. 02, 2020
Meningococcemia presents abruptly with fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, headache, breathing difficulty, myalgias, malaise, prostration, and rash, which may rapidly progress to purpura fulminans, shock, and death. Outbreaks are particularly likely to occur in semiclosed communities with close quarters. Antibiotic therapy should be rapidly initiated when meningococcal disease is suspected.
Dec. 07, 2004
Diabetic amyotrophy is a motor neuropathy affecting the lumbosacral plexus, causing unilateral pain of the thigh and buttock followed by weakness and atrophy of those muscles. It typically occurs in older patients with type 2 diabetes and is believed to be due to an immune-mediated microvasculitis causing ischemic injury.
Aug. 23, 2020
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Acute myocardial infarction is associated with a low but significant risk of stroke. Ischemic strokes are the predominant type of stroke seen in non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction, and most ischemic strokes are cardioembolic. Intracerebral hemorrhage can occur after thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction and markedly increases the risk of death and disability.
Mar. 18, 2021
Oct. 13, 2020