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Anisocoria due to afferent pupillary defect in a woman with ankylosing spondylitis. (Contributed by Dr. Walter Carlini.)
Mar. 16, 2021
Kennedy disease is a rare, X-linked inherited, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive weakness of the proximal limbs and bulbar muscles, muscle atrophy, fasciculations (especially perioral), loss of reflexes, tremor, gynecomastia, and diabetes mellitus. It results from an excessive number of trinucleotide (CAG) repeats in the androgen receptor gene on the X chromosome. Due to its X-linked genetic association, males are predominantly affected.
Jan. 27, 2021
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Jan. 23, 2021
Fever is probably the most common symptom observed by physicians and is defined as elevation of body temperature above normal limits of the central regulatory processes originating in the hypothalamus. Several neurologic disorders, both infectious and noninfectious, have fever as a manifestation. Fever may be sustained, intermittent, remittent, or relapsing and is accompanied by other symptoms such as malaise, rigors, seizures, and impairment of consciousness.
Mar. 02, 2021
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes bradykinesia, rest tremor, rigidity, and imbalance due to progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Nonmotor symptoms may include dementia, psychosis, orthostatic hypotension, and abnormalities of mood, sleep, and autonomic function.
Feb. 13, 2021
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Topiramate is a monosaccharide derivative with a sulfamate functionality. It is used as an add-on therapy to other antiepileptic drugs with the aim of controlling seizures as completely as possible. Those who tolerate topiramate have a good chance of seizure control. It is indicated for use in partial-onset seizures in adults and prophylaxis of migraine.
Jul. 11, 2021
Oligodendrogliomas are diffusely infiltrating and chemoresponsive gliomas defined by the presence of mutated IDH1 or IDH2 and whole-arm chromosomal losses of 1p and 19q. Their growth trajectory is typically slower compared to astrocytomas, though no less fatal in advanced stages of disease. The goal of treatment is to prolong survival and delay further progression, and a multidisciplinary approach with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy is often warranted.
Jul. 02, 2020
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
A developmental language disorder is a primary disability, with no comorbidities such as sensory impairment, intellectual disability, global developmental delay, motor dysfunction, autism spectrum disorder, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is a relatively common developmental finding in children and has some long-term impacts. No clear etiology has been determined, but there is much interest in finding a gene or genes that affect language development.
Apr. 16, 2021