Sign Up for a Free Account
  • Updated 08.29.2019
  • Released 03.05.2002
  • Expires For CME 08.29.2022

Central neurocytoma

Introduction

This article contains a clinical history of central neurocytomas, including clinical manifestations, prognosis and complications, histological and genetic makeup, treatment, and differential diagnoses. The foregoing terms may include synonyms, similar disorders, variations in usage, and abbreviations.

Overview

Central neurocytomas are benign intracranial tumors composing up to 0.5% of all brain tumors (47). They are classified by the World Health Organization as grade II (40; 47). Although central neurocytoma commonly manifest within the cerebral ventricular system (23; 24), they have also been reported in the cerebral hemispheres, limbic system, spinal cord, cerebellum, brainstem, and retina (36; 39; 11; 49; 56).

Central neurocytomas are similar in radiological and histological presentation to other brain tumors, such as oligodendrogliomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas, and, therefore, require careful differential diagnosis. Diagnosis is generally achieved by a combination of MRI or CT imaging with immunohistochemical confirmation of specific molecular markers. Prognosis is generally good, and primary treatments may include surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery (09; 34; 40).

Key points

• Central neurocytomas are rare, brain tumors located in the ventricular system.

• Obstruction of the ventricles by central neurocytomas can lead to hydrocephalus, intracranial hypertension, and mass effect.

• The presence of the immunohistochemical marker synaptophysin can aid in the differential diagnosis of central neurocytomas.

• Maximal safe resection with adjuvant radiotherapy is most frequently utilized for treating central neurocytomas and has a good prognosis.

• Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming an alternative primary treatment for central neurocytoma.

• These tumors are at risk for recurrence, and recurrences may occur after prolonged intervals.

Historical note and terminology

Central neurocytomas are thought to be derived from neuronal cells, neuronal progenitor cells, neuronal stem cells, or multipotent precursor cells that arise from the fornix, wall of the lateral ventricles, or the septum pellucidum (58; 21; 52; 57; 23; 08; 24; 35; 47).

“Central” neurocytoma is used to reference those lesions that reside within the cerebral ventricular system, whereas “extraventricular” neurocytomas reside elsewhere in the central nervous system.

Start a MedLink Neurology trial
to unlock 3 free articles.

  • Nearly 3,000 illustrations, 
including video clips of 
neurologic disorders.

  • Every article is reviewed by our esteemed Editorial Board for accuracy and currency.

  • Full spectrum of 
neurology in 1,200 
comprehensive articles.

Questions or Comment?

MedLink, LLC

10393 San Diego Mission Rd, Suite 120

San Diego, CA 92108-2134

Toll Free (U.S. + Canada): 800-452-2400

US Number: +1-619-640-4660

Support: service@medlink.com

Editor: editor@medlink.com