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San Diego, CA 92108-2134
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Audiogram showing a low-frequency trough pattern of sensorineural hearing loss, commonly seen in Meniere disease. The left ear is shown. (Courtesy of James Lanska.)
Dec. 06, 2020
Patients with multiple sclerosis present with a wide variety of neurologic symptoms. The goal of individualized medicine is to treat each unique person in an individual way; this includes addressing symptoms affecting their quality of life. Symptomatic therapy optimizes the functioning of patients with neurologic dysfunction due to multiple sclerosis.
Jan. 31, 2021
Tetanus is characterized by sustained muscle rigidity and reflex spasm, and sometimes autonomic instability (mostly hypersympathetic state) in severe cases. Early manifestations include rigidity of the masseter muscles (lockjaw) and facial muscles, with straightening of the upper lip (grimace). It is caused by the neurotoxin tetanospasmin, produced by Clostridium tetani, which interferes with the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter causing excessive excitation of spinal and bulbar motor neurons.
Aug. 07, 2021
Epilepsy & Seizures
Benign familial and nonfamilial infantile seizures are characterized by seizure onset in the first year of life, remission by 2 years of life, and the absence of neurodevelopmental sequelae. Benign familial infantile seizures and benign nonfamilial infantile seizures are distinct syndromes with overlapping clinical presentations. Family history, genetic studies, and at times seizure semiology and EEG can be used to distinguish these syndromes from each other, though these are often unreliable.
Apr. 09, 2019
General Child Neurology
Infant botulism is a serious bacterial infection that results from ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores that colonize the intestinal tract, releasing botulinum toxin and resulting in progressive neuromuscular weakness. It presents with a progression of symptoms: constipation, cranial nerve palsies, flaccid descending paralysis, and possible respiratory failure. Treatment includes urgent administration of botulism immune globulin (BabyBIG®) as well as supportive care.
May. 31, 2021
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Valproic acid is used as an anticonvulsant drug to treat multiple seizure types, as well as for prevention of migraine and treatment of bipolar disorder. It is structurally unrelated to other antiepileptic drugs. The aim of therapy is to control seizures, continued for as long as seizure control is required.
Sep. 14, 2021
Headache & Pain
Primary cough headache is typically bilateral, has a sudden onset, and, after peaking, almost immediately dissipates over seconds to a few minutes, with the ICHD-3 permitting residual pain for up to 2 hours. It is precipitated rather than aggravated by coughing. The International Headache Society criteria specify that structural lesions must be ruled out by neuroimaging before the diagnosis of primary cough headache can be made.
Mar. 24, 2020
Mar. 04, 2021