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Axial section showing a large hematoma, originating in the left thalamus. The hemorrhage has dissected into the lateral ventricles. (Contributed by Dr. Sherman Stein.)
Jul. 19, 2021
Under nonpathological circumstances, REM sleep is characterized by an activated brain state in combination with skeletal muscle paralysis. This paradox, wake-like brain activity combined with flaccid motor function, prevents the enactment of dream activity. In REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), REM sleep atonia is lost and patients act out dream mentation. The majority of patients with spontaneously occurring RBD will eventually demonstrate signs and symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders, most commonly one of the synucleinopathies.
Jun. 22, 2021
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by patterned, twisting movements of the body that can result in abnormal postures. The term “isolated dystonia” is applied when dystonia is the only movement disorder identified, with or without tremor. Dystonia is thought to be caused by dopamine dysregulation, loss of inhibition, abnormal neuroplasticity, and abnormal sensory processing.
Jan. 04, 2021
Aug. 02, 2020
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
Jul. 04, 2020
Pathologic laughter and crying can be associated with lesions of the brainstem, along with disturbances at various levels of the central nervous system. It is caused by damage of pathways that arise in the motor areas of the cerebral cortex and descend to the brainstem to inhibit the center for laughter and crying.
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Nov. 03, 2020
Epilepsy & Seizures
EEG is the most useful test for evaluation of possible epilepsy, and can help classify the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome. Diagnosis is supported by interictal epileptiform discharges on the EEG and can be confirmed when EEG records an ictal rhythm during a seizure.
Apr. 09, 2021