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Spina bifida is evident. The intraspinal lipoma has the same density as subcutaneous fat and displaces the neural elements anteriorly. (Contributed by Dr. Sherman Stein)
Jan. 05, 2020
General Child Neurology
Infant botulism is a serious bacterial infection that results from ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores that colonize the intestinal tract, releasing botulinum toxin and resulting in progressive neuromuscular weakness. It presents with a progression of symptoms: constipation, cranial nerve palsies, flaccid descending paralysis, and possible respiratory failure. Treatment includes urgent administration of botulism immune globulin (BabyBIG®) as well as supportive care.
May. 31, 2021
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Unruptured cerebral aneurysms are typically asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during neuroimaging workup for other conditions, with an average prevalence of 2% to 3% in the general population. Most are acquired and occur spontaneously although traumatic, infectious, and malignancy-associated etiologies are also recognized. Management options include observation or treatment with either open surgery or endovascular techniques.
Jul. 09, 2018
May. 07, 2020
CLIPPERS presents with subacute brainstem symptoms including ataxia, diplopia, dysarthria, and altered facial sensation. Radiological features include punctate or curvilinear perivascular gadolinium enhancement in the pons and adjacent cerebellum. It is believed to be inflammatory in nature.
Jan. 04, 2019
Epilepsy & Seizures
Landau-Kleffner syndrome, or acquired epileptic aphasia, is an epileptic encephalopathy. Acquired aphasia is the more prominent feature because seizures are present in only 70% to 80% of patients. Verbal auditory agnosia is present in all patients, and in many cases the first diagnosis is hearing loss. Variable time may elapse between the loss of the ability to understand language and the expressive aphasia.
Jul. 26, 2021
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS) are characterized by recurrent, severe “thunderclap” headaches and multifocal cerebral arterial narrowing and dilatation, often complicated by ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes or reversible brain edema. RCVS affects young individuals, mostly women, and have been associated with diverse conditions such as pregnancy, migraine, vasoconstrictive drug use, pheochromocytoma, and neurosurgical procedures. The prognosis is usually excellent, with most patients recovering completely or near-completely within days to weeks.
Apr. 05, 2020
Nov. 19, 2020