Clinical trials in multiple sclerosis

Elena Grebenciucova MD (

Dr. Grebenciucova of Northwestern University has received honorariums from AlphaSights, Medscape, and Trinity Partners for consulting work.

Anthony T Reder MD, editor. (

Dr. Reder of the University of Chicago served on advisory boards and as a consultant for Bayer, Biogen Idec, Caremark Rx, Genentech, Genzyme, Novartis, Mallinckrodt, Mylan, Serono, and Teva-Marion.

Originally released November 12, 2002; last updated September 7, 2018; expires September 7, 2021

This article includes discussion of clinical trials in multiple sclerosis, immunomodulatory agents in MS: clinical trials and therapy, trials in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, trials in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, and trials in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. The foregoing terms may include synonyms, similar disorders, variations in usage, and abbreviations.


The author reviews current data on FDA-approved multiple sclerosis relapse treatment options, including several pivotal trials that involved the approval of ocrelizumab for the use in both relapsing-remitting and primary progressive multiple sclerosis, as well as the data on the use of the subcutaneous of the CD19-depleting therapy, ofatumumab.

Key points


• Currently, there are 14 FDA-approved disease-modifying therapies available for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.


• Ocrelizumab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, was approved for the treatment of both relapsing-remitting and primary progressive multiple sclerosis.


• Due to the toxic side effects associated with its use, novantrone is no longer used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.


• Due to life-threatening side effects, daclizumab, previously marketed as Zinbryta, was withdrawn from the market in March 2018.

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