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  • Updated 06.07.2023
  • Released 02.08.2015
  • Expires For CME 06.07.2026




Neuroschistosomiasis is an infection of the nervous system by a blood fluke of the genus Schistosoma. A common infection within tropical regions, neuroschistosomiasis can cause substantial neurologic disability. The brain and spinal cord can both be affected by this parasite. The infection can be effectively treated with a combination of antiparasite agents, corticosteroids, and surgery. Efforts are underway worldwide to eliminate, or at least substantially reduce, schistosomal infections.

Key points

• Schistosomiasis is a common intravascular infection caused by parasitic Schistosoma trematode worms.

• People are infected during routine agricultural, domestic, occupational, and recreational activities that expose them to infested water.

• Neuroschistosomiasis results from migration of parasite eggs into the nervous tissue and resultant host immune response.

• Neuroimaging, serology, molecular testing, and biopsy can all be important components of the diagnostic workup for neuroschistosomiasis.

• Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids, and surgery are useful for treating neuroschistosomiasis.

Historical note and terminology

Humans have been afflicted with schistosomiasis for more than 2500 years (16). However, it was not until 1851 that Theodor Bilharz Maximilian, a German surgeon, discovered the trematode worm in an autopsy while working at the Kasr-el-Aini Hospital of Cairo in Egypt, initially naming it Distomum haematobium. He communicated his findings to his former teacher, Carl Theodor Ernst von Siebold, in a series of letters. In 1853, extracts from these letters together, with von Siebold’s comments, were published in the German Zoological Journal (04).

Due to the peculiar morphology of the worm, it could not be included in the genus Distomum, as was initially proposed; thus, the parasite was described in 1856 as Bilharzia haematobium by Meckel Von Hemsbach in a thesis entitled “The Geology of the Human Body” (39). A zoologist, David Weinland, apparently unaware of this thesis, re-described the worm as Schistosoma haematobium in 1858 (74). Subsequently, in 1948, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature established the name Schistosoma, which is the current name of the parasite (26). Bilharz also described Schistosoma mansoni, but this species was re-described by Louis Westenra Sambon in 1907 at the London School of Tropical Medicine, who named it after his teacher Patrick Manson. The life cycle was described by da Silva in 1908 (05).

Molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that Schistosoma spp originated in Asia and that a mollusk-transmitted progenitor colonized Africa and gave rise to both the terminal-spined and lateral-spined egg species groups, the latter containing Schistosoma mansoni (60).

Schistosoma mansoni likely appeared only after the transatlantic dispersal of the snail species Biomphalaria from the neotropica to Africa, an event that occurred about 2 to 5 million years ago, based on the African fossil record. This parasite became abundant in tropical Africa and, much later, entered the New World with the slave trade (41). On arriving in South America, Schistosoma species found favorable climatic conditions that promoted its spread. Since then, factors that have continued to favor its spread include growth in international travel, refugee and population migration, and the development of new water resources (56).

Five species of Schistosoma infect humans. Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma hematobium, and Schistosoma japonicum are the most widely distributed and are present in multiple tropical and subtropical countries. In contrast, Schistosoma mekongi and Schistosoma intercalatum are much more restricted in their geographic distributions.

Most granulomas following schistosomal infection develop in the intestine and liver (Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum), or genitourinary tract (Schistosoma haematobium) (56). Cerebral schistosomiasis is usually caused by Schistosoma japonicum, whereas myelopathy is most often induced by Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium (50).

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