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Pathogenic mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases and neuroprotective effects of different forms of vitamin D3 in experimental models of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases

Ab--amyloid b; BDNF--brain-derived neurotrophic factor; DA--dopamine; DAT--dopamine transporter; DOPAC--3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; GDNF--glial-derived neurotrophic factor; HVA--homovanillic acid; NGF--nerve growth factor; ROS--reactive oxygen species; Syn--synuclein; TH--tyrosine kinase; VDR-- the vitamin D receptor. (Source: Lasoń W, Jantas D, Leśkiewicz M, Regulska M, Basta-Kaim A. The vitamin D receptor as a potential target for the treatment of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: a narrative review. Cells 2023;12[4]:660. Creative Commons Attribution [CC BY] license,