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Late phase severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (fluorescein angiograph)

Late phase fluorescein angiograph in severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy patient. Note the pooling of the fluorescein dye in the retina superior and temporal to the macula where the circinate ring had been previously noted, thus, confirming that this area is edematous. (Contributed by Dr. Rosa Tang.)

Associated Disorders

  • Bassen-Kornzweig disease
  • Cushing syndrome
  • Kearns-Sayre syndrome
  • Lawrence-Moon-Biedl syndrome
  • Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
  • Ocular paraneoplastic syndromes
  • Refsum disease
  • Usher syndrome
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • posterior vitreous detachment
  • retinal detachment
  • systemic arterial hypertension
  • systemic lupus erythematosus