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CT of patient at the age of 11 years, 8 months showing extreme brain atrophy with enlarged ventricles and sylvian fissures and mild punctuate calcifications in basal ganglia. (Contributed by Francoise Goutieres.)
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Jan. 05, 2020
Under nonpathological circumstances, REM sleep is characterized by an activated brain state in combination with skeletal muscle paralysis. This paradox, wake-like brain activity combined with flaccid motor function, prevents the enactment of dream activity. In REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), REM sleep atonia is lost and patients act out dream mentation. The majority of patients with spontaneously occurring RBD will eventually demonstrate signs and symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders, most commonly one of the synucleinopathies.
Jun. 22, 2021
Clinical symptoms of a meningioma are determined by its anatomic site. They originate extra-axially and occur where arachnoid cells are most numerous, with 85 to 90% located supratentorially. They are the most common primary intracranial tumors, with surgery and radiation as the primary forms of therapeutic management.
Dec. 18, 2020
General Child Neurology
Disorders of articulation generally refers to common childhood speech problems and are now more commonly referred to as speech sound disorders. Disorders of articulation manifest in the form of incorrect pronunciation, particularly of consonants. They are common in early childhood and are generally resolved by adolescence, although associated language and reading difficulties may persist.
Jan. 19, 2021
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and the most common cause of cardioembolism. It confers a 3- to 5-fold increase in stroke risk and accounts for 15% to 30% of all ischemic strokes. Patients present with severe deficits and clinical evidence of cortical or cerebellar dysfunction. The most current guidelines for the prevention of stroke recommend the correction of modifiable vascular risk factors.
Jan. 18, 2021
Chronic pain encompasses a spectrum of clinical scenarios involving both peripheral and central pain syndromes. In this article, the author discusses
Jan. 31, 2021
In normal subjects, sleep is characterized by physiological changes in cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate), but sleep and, in particular,
Jun. 12, 2016
Concussion in children is unique, occurring within the context of neurodevelopment; symptoms in children are similar to adults, although resolution of symptoms is often longer in children. Focal neurologic signs such as weakness or sensory symptoms, loss of consciousness longer than 5 minutes, severe headache, persistent emesis, confusion lasting longer than 30 minutes, or altered mental status are red flags that may indicate a more severe brain injury.
Aug. 29, 2020