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Types of frontal lobe seizures and their localization within the frontal lobes. (Contributed by Dr. Barbara Jobst.)
Sep. 11, 2021
Headache & Pain
Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders can all coincide with migraine, and onset of depression either preceding or following migraine is common. Shared genetic vulnerability and environmental factors are the most likely explanations for migraine and comorbid depression.
Dec. 27, 2020
Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal meningitis and is commonly observed in AIDS. Other immunosuppressive conditions also predispose to its development, such as corticosteroid administration; however, it may also be seen in immunologically normal persons. Headache is the most common of symptoms but it is not universally present, and papilledema occurs in less than one third of persons. On occasion, cryptococcal infection of the CNS presents as mass lesion in the brain.
Dec. 01, 2021
Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness. The classic form of narcolepsy (narcolepsy type 1) features cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations, in addition to excessive daytime sleepiness. Some patients with otherwise typical features of narcolepsy do not have cataplexy; this is a condition referred to as monosymptomatic narcolepsy or narcolepsy without cataplexy (narcolepsy type 2).
Apr. 11, 2021
Aug. 23, 2021
Oct. 13, 2020
The most prominent signs of encephalitis lethargica include lethargy, sleepiness, or stupor at the onset and through the early stages of the disease. Patients may also exhibit insomnia, alone or alternating with somnolence, or delirium. It tends to appear in epidemic outbreaks, with symptoms fluctuating from one epidemic to another, and is associated with the subsequent development of postencephalitic parkinsonism.
Apr. 03, 2021
HTLV-1 associated myelopathy is a progressive inflammatory myelopathy that typically evolves over decades. Typical features include spastic paraparesis typified by early bladder dysfunction, neuritic pains in the low back and legs, and frequent subtle lower motor neuron findings. Brain and cord MRI with serology and PCR will make the diagnosis. There is only symptomatic treatment for inflammation and spasticity, but no specific etiologic treatment.
Oct. 15, 2020