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Rotatory atlantoaxial subluxation (x-rays)

Anteroposterior (A) and lateral (B) x-rays of this 3-year-old child show the severe fixed postural malformation of the head with respect to the thorax. Rotation, contralateral tilt, and flexion are all apparent, especially on the anteroposterior view. (Contributed by Dr. David Choi.)

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Associated Disorders

  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Chiari malformation
  • Cleidocranial dysplasia
  • Down syndrome
  • Ehlers-Danlos type IV
  • Grisel syndrome
  • Head and neck infection
  • Inflammatory arthritides
  • Marfan disease
  • Morquio syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IV)
  • Primary cervical dystonia
  • Reiter syndrome
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Trauma
  • Tuberculosis
  • Tuberculous spondylitis