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Double Maddox rod test measuring torsional ocular misalignment

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Associated Disorders

  • Anxiety
  • Blunt trauma to the orbit
  • Botulism
  • Brainstem tumors
  • Combined extraocular cranial nerve palsies
  • Encephalitis
  • Esotropia
  • Exotropia
  • Fourth cranial nerve palsy
  • Genetic extraocular myopathies
  • Graves disease
  • Idiopathic orbital inflammation
  • Illusory spread
  • Increased intracranial pressure
  • Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
  • Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
  • Malingering
  • Meningitis
  • Midbrain lesion
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Neoplastic infiltration of the extraocular muscles
  • Ocular motor cranial nerve palsy
  • Palinopsia
  • Sixth cranial nerve palsy
  • Skew deviation
  • Superior oblique tendon sheath (Brown) syndrome
  • Third cranial nerve palsy
  • Visual hallucinations