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Therapeutic algorithm of peripheral neuropathy developed by EULAR-Sjögren Syndrome Task Force Group

The EULAR-Sjögren Syndrome Task Force Group recommended general sequential use of the 3 main categories of immunosuppressive agents in Sjögren syndrome based on a similar approach to that reported for other systemic autoimmune disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or vasculitis, with no controlled studies supporting this approach in Sjögren syndrome. The immunosuppressive approaches traditionally used in multineuritis and axonal polyneuropathy (predominantly vasculitis related) are high dose of glucocorticoids as first-line treatment and oral immunosuppressive agents or rituximab as second-line. In refractory cases, cyclophosphamide or plasma exchanges are recommended as rescue therapy. Azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil may be used in lieu of cyclophosphamide or following cyclophosphamide as “remission maintenance” agents, although neither medication has been evaluated for this purpose in formal clinical trials. In cases in which the axonal polyneuropathy is sensory, first-line treatment will be symptomatic, but in refractory cases, motor involvement, ganglionopathy, and or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, EULAR Task Force Group recommend intravenous immunoglobulins 0.4 to 2 g/kg for 5 days as first-line treatment and methylprednisolone pulses as second-line or cyclophosphamide pulses 0.5 g/15 day (maximum 6 pulses) as rescue therapy. (Ramos-Casals M, Brito-Zerón P, Bombardieri S, et al. EULAR recommendations for the management of Sjogren's syndrome with topical and systemic therapies. Ann Rheum Dis 2020;79(1):3-18.)

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Associated Disorders

  • Angiitis
  • Aquaporin autoantibody
  • B12 deficiency
  • Brown-Sequard syndrome
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Chronic progressive myelitis
  • Devic syndrome
  • Entrapment neuropathies
  • HTLV-1 infection
  • Lower motor neuron disease
  • Lupus
  • Mononeuritis multiplex
  • Multiple cranial neuropathy: diplopia, trigeminal, facial (Bell palsy), cochlear
  • Multiple-sclerosis like syndromes
  • Myopathy
  • Neurogenic bladder
  • Neuromyelitis optica
  • Painful sensory neuropathy
  • Pure sensory neuropathy
  • Radiculoneuropathy (demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy)
  • Sensorimotor (axonal) polyneuropathy
  • Sensorineural hearing loss
  • Sensory ataxic ganglionopathy with antiganglion neuron antibodies
  • Sicca syndrome
  • Subacute combined degeneration
  • Transverse myelitis
  • Vasculitic neuropathy