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Cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic model

(A) The “standard” model. (B) Updated model. (C) Motor thalamic circuits. Green/light gray arrows = excitatory (glutamatergic) projections; red/black circles = inhibitory (GABAergic) projections; blue/dark gray arrows = dopaminergic projections. (+) and (-) indicate excitatory and inhibitory effects of dopamine on MSNs, respectively. Roman numerals in (C) indicate cortical layers. Ovals in layer V indicate distinct populations of intratelencephalic and pyramidal tract neurons. Note the distinct projection patterns of the cerebellar and basal ganglia-recipient thalamus. In the thalamus, “BG” and “Cer” indicate the basal ganglia and cerebellar-recipient regions, respectively. Circular arrows in (B) and (C) indicate candidate oscillation generators.(From: Ellens DJ, Leventhal DK. Review: electrophysiology of basal ganglia and cortex in models of Parkinson disease. J Parkinsons Dis. 2013 Jan 1;3(3):241-54.)

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