Myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers
Jun. 10, 2021
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This article includes discussion of hot water epilepsy, warm water epilepsy, bathing epilepsy, and water immersion epilepsy. The foregoing terms may include synonyms, similar disorders, variations in usage, and abbreviations.
Hot water epilepsy is one of the reflex epilepsies induced by hot water being poured over the head, face, neck, or trunk during bathing. Two types of hot water epilepsies exist: the classical one seen in older children and adults, which is usually triggered by head baths, and a variant seen in infants precipitated by immersion of the lower trunk in hot water. In this article, the authors review the clinical, pathophysiological, and epidemiologic data related to hot water epilepsies. Relevant management strategies are also discussed. Even though initially considered as a geographically restricted epilepsy syndrome, hot water epilepsy is increasingly being reported all around the world. Hot water epilepsy in infancy may have an association with febrile seizures and Dravet syndrome. Management strategies include avoidance of hot water baths, antiepileptic drugs, and psychobehavioral approaches.
• Hot water epilepsy is one of the reflex epilepsies induced by hot water pouring over the head, face, neck, or trunk during bathing.
• Two types of hot water epilepsies exist; a classical one seen in older children and adults usually triggered by head baths, and a variant seen in infants precipitated by immersion of the lower trunk in hot water.
• The exact pathogenesis is unclear.
• Avoidance of hot water bath is currently considered to be the best preventive strategy
• The majority of patients have a good outcome.
Reflex epilepsies are classified as a group of etiologically heterogeneous epileptic entities, the common factor being precipitation of seizures by precise sensory and cognitive precipitating factors. The seizures may occur immediately with stimuli or after a short delay. However, this response should be consistent. Photosensitive epilepsies are so far the commonest in this group. However, seizures precipitated by touch, music, reading, eating, and other complex cognitive processes have also been reported (37).
Hot water epilepsy is one of the reflex epilepsies induced by hot water pouring over the head, face, neck, or trunk during bathing (39). This type of reflex epilepsy was first reported from New Zealand in 1945 (01). Even though cases have been subsequently reported from different countries around the world and across all races, there was a clustering of cases from South India (11; 12). Satishchandra and colleagues reported a large clinical series of 279 patients with hot water epilepsy seen over a 4 year period (29). A prospective clinical series of 70 patients over a period of 2 years was added from the same center in 2012 (15). There have been several clinical series of hot water epilepsy reported from Turkey (17; 39).
Apart from classical hot water epilepsy, another type of reflex epilepsy triggered by hot water baths in infants has also been reported in literature (21). This condition is also called bathing epilepsy or water immersion epilepsy, as the temperature of the water has not always been hot and the trigger includes immersion of only the lower part of the body in hot water, as in the Japanese style bath (18).
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