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  • Updated 02.10.2024
  • Released 10.23.2014
  • Expires For CME 02.10.2027

Multiple sclerosis: neuroimmunology



This is a comprehensive overview of immunology, immunopathology, and environmental pressures in multiple sclerosis. It complements other chapters on the complex clinical characteristics and therapy of this disease.

Key points

• Multiple sclerosis is caused by immune attack against brain cells.

• There is no known specific antigen or gene that causes multiple sclerosis.

• Before any therapy, (1) immune control is reduced, leading to inflammation, and (2) interferon-alpha/beta levels in serum and responses to interferon are subnormal in multiple sclerosis.

• The primary damage is from demyelination and destruction of oligodendroglia, but axons and neurons are also destroyed.

•Cortical disruption affects cognition and many central nervous system functions (CNS), but cortical lesions are difficult to see on MRI.

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