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  • Updated 01.04.2023
  • Released 10.23.2014
  • Expires For CME 01.04.2026

Multiple sclerosis: neuroimmunology



This is a comprehensive overview of immunology, immunopathology, and environmental pressures in multiple sclerosis. It complements other articles on the complex clinical characteristics and therapy of this disease.

Key points

• Multiple sclerosis is caused by immune attack against brain cells.
• There is no known specific antigen or gene that causes multiple sclerosis.
• Before any therapy, interferon-alpha/beta levels in serum and responses to interferon are subnormal in multiple sclerosis but high in neuromyelitis optica.
• The primary damage is from demyelination and destruction of oligodendroglia, but axons and neurons are also destroyed.
• Cortical disruption affects cognition and many central nervous system functions, but cortical lesions are difficult to see on MRI.

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ISSN: 2831-9125