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This 14-year-old boy shows generalized chorea, an unusual manifestation of Wilson disease. Kayser-Fleischer Ring was demonstrable. (Contributed by Dr. Ravindra Kumar Garg.)
Mar. 18, 2021
Herpes simplex encephalitis, a viral infection of the brain, presents acutely with frontal and temporal lobe symptoms, such as aphasia, personality changes, and hallucinations preceded or followed by headache, fever, impaired consciousness, and seizures. The virus is believed to spread to the brain along the trigeminal or olfactory pathways.
Sep. 04, 2021
Antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antiarrhythmics, topical agents, and analgesics are common treatments for neuropathic pain. Treatment must be individualized to the patient. Effective pain management without the use of narcotics is the primary goal.
Apr. 09, 2021
The main symptom of idiopathic hypersomnia is an irresistible urge to sleep despite adequate, or even excessive, nocturnal sleep, which lasts at least 3 months. Idiopathic hypersomnia can be associated with symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysregulation (orthostatic hypotension, syncope, headache, and Raynaud-type phenomena) and with significant sleep inertia. The cause of idiopathic hypersomnia remains unknown, but it is likely to be composed of several distinct disorders.
Jan. 03, 2021
General Child Neurology
Acute cerebellar ataxia in children typically presents with sudden onset of unsteadiness, gait difficulties, and nystagmus, usually following an acute viral illness or vaccination. Headache, photophobia, and lightheadedness may also occur. Varicella, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza, and mycoplasma can be causes.
Apr. 05, 2021
Epilepsy & Seizures
The terms functional and dissociative (previously called psychogenic nonepileptic seizures) refer to seizures associated with increased connection between limbic or emotional brain areas and higher-level motor networks, which are associated with acute and chronic psychological stressors and are not caused by epileptic abnormality. They are involuntary and often disabling, with the patient’s physical movements or mental status dissociating from conscious control, and may appear similar to epileptic seizures.
Jan. 26, 2021
Endocannabinoid receptors are found throughout the CNS, with postsynaptic cannabinoid ligands that act presynaptically on endocannabinoid receptors, which appears to function as a negative feedback system. Multiple sclerosis has the most robust evidence for the efficacy of cannabis, and there is some research suggesting cannabis may suppress seizures in epilepsy, with some clinical trials suggesting benefit in specific pediatric epilepsy syndromes.
Oct. 12, 2020
Atonic seizures are epileptic attacks characterized by a sudden loss or diminution of muscle tone, which may be fragmentary, confined to a segment, or massive, leading to a slumping to the ground. They may have a generalized or focal origin, and may be brief (drop seizures) with patients able to stand up immediately if they fall; or prolonged (akinetic seizures), lasting from one to several minutes, where the patient falls to the ground and remains mute and motionless.
Aug. 01, 2019