10393 San Diego Mission Rd, Suite 120
San Diego, CA 92108-2134
Toll Free (U.S. + Canada): 800-452-2400
US Number: +1-619-640-4660
This is an 82-year-old male with frontotemporal lobe degeneration and associated oral and lower limb stereotypies. (Contributed by Dr. José Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo.)
Mar. 05, 2021
Stiff-person syndrome is a rare disorder that causes continuous muscle contractions with spasms, abnormal postures, and progressive disability. It is often associated with other autoimmune signs and symptoms as well as nonspecific and organ-specific autoantibodies. The symptoms of stiff-person syndrome likely relate to cortical and spinal cord hyperexcitability secondary to reduction of GABA.
Sep. 26, 2021
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a feature of several neurodevelopmental disorders in which the cerebellum is small in size, but normal in shape. Disorganized development of the cerebellum causes cerebellar dysplasia in which the shape and “texture” of the cerebellum appear abnormal due to the presence of abnormal folia pattern or gray matter nodular heterotopia. Macrocerebellum is a rare malformation that may occur as an isolated finding or as part of a few syndromes.
Sep. 08, 2021
The most common CNS infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes is meningitis, though rhombencephalitis, encephalitis, cerebritis, and abscess also occur. Neonates, the elderly, pregnant women, and immunocompromised patients are at highest risk of developing listerial meningitis, though a notable minority of patients is without risk factors. Clinical manifestations of CNS listeriosis depend on the involved neuroanatomy but commonly include fever, headache, altered sensorium, nuchal rigidity, hemiplegia, cranial nerve palsies, and seizure.
Jan. 24, 2017
Nov. 19, 2020
General Child Neurology
Infant botulism is a serious bacterial infection that results from ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores that colonize the intestinal tract, releasing botulinum toxin and resulting in progressive neuromuscular weakness. It presents with a progression of symptoms: constipation, cranial nerve palsies, flaccid descending paralysis, and possible respiratory failure. Treatment includes urgent administration of botulism immune globulin (BabyBIG®) as well as supportive care.
May. 31, 2021
Brain injury continues to be a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Movement disorders, such as myoclonic jerks and cerebellar ataxia, and delirium may also follow episodes of cardiac arrest. In extreme cases, patients suffer widespread destruction of the cerebral cortex and progress to either a persistent vegetative state or death from neurologic complications.
Jun. 09, 2021
Cough syncope is one of the so-called situational syncopes, which occur immediately after precipitating situations, such as urination, defecation, cough, or swallowing. The vast majority of patients have a chronic cough, bouts of severe coughing, and evidence of obstructive lung disease. Syncope (or presyncope) follows bouts of severe involuntary coughing and may occur within 3 to 5 seconds of the onset of coughing.
Oct. 21, 2020