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Diminished MRA and ICA is seen on the affected left side. Arrow indicates normal caliber vessels on the unaffected side. (Contributed by Dr. Anne Comi.)
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Apr. 12, 2021
Feb. 26, 2021
Acute autonomic neuropathy is an inclusive term used to describe diseases resulting from distinct etiologies but that have in common pathology of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. All acute autonomic neuropathies share common clinical features that may include orthostatic hypotension, dry eyes and mouth, cold feet and hands with color or trophic changes in the skin, reduced or accentuated sweating, anorexia or early satiety referable to gastroparesis, erectile or ejaculatory failure, and defects in micturition stream or volume, but selective syndromes are known.
Nov. 15, 2020
Autonomic neuropathy has numerous causes, some of them common, such as diabetic autonomic neuropathy, and others rare, such as Fabry disease, but all
Aug. 31, 2021
HTLV-1 associated myelopathy is a progressive inflammatory myelopathy that typically evolves over decades. Typical features include spastic paraparesis typified by early bladder dysfunction, neuritic pains in the low back and legs, and frequent subtle lower motor neuron findings. Brain and cord MRI with serology and PCR will make the diagnosis. There is only symptomatic treatment for inflammation and spasticity, but no specific etiologic treatment.
Oct. 15, 2020
Disorders of calcium metabolism, including hyper- or hypofunction of parathyroid hormone, are frequently overlooked causes of muscle dysfunction. Presentation is often nondescript, with mild proximal weakness, muscle pain, and a normal CK. Management of myopathies related to parathyroid disorders requires treatment of the primary cause, eg, removal of an adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism or vitamin D and calcium replacement in osteomalacia.
Oct. 10, 2021
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Cerebral cavernous malformations are vascular lesions that may cause hemorrhage, seizures, headaches, cranial neuropathies, or neurologic manifestations reflecting lesion location. Patients present with acute or chronic neurologic deficits, periods of remission and exacerbation, or a progressive, insidious deterioration. Epilepsy is the most common clinical presentation of cavernous malformations; hemorrhage is the second most common clinical presentation.
Dec. 02, 2020
Central sleep apnea is caused by a brief failure of the normal ventilatory rhythm. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3rd edition) identifies 8 forms of central sleep apnea syndrome. Central sleep apnea may present with insomnia, daytime drowsiness, and fatigue. Some patients complain of nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, choking or gasping spells, restless sleep, nonrestorative sleep, and inability to sleep supine.
Mar. 29, 2021