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Frontoethmoidal cephalocele (diagrammatic illustration)

Diagrammatic illustration of cranium anteriorly and in midsagittal plane in normal (A) and in the 3 subgroups of frontoethmoidal cephalocele (B, C, D), showing the location of bony defect and cephalocele sac (thick line). The medial wall of orbit instead of the midsagittal plane is shown in D. E, ethmoidal bone; F, frontal bone; M and shaded area, maxillary bone; N and striped area, nasal bone; NC, nasal cartilage. (Used with permission: Charoonsmith T, Suwanwela C. Frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele with special reference to plastic reconstruction. Clin Plast Surg 1974;1:27-47.)

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Associated Disorders

  • Ambiguous genitalia
  • Chiari malformation
  • Cleft lip
  • Cleft palate
  • Dandy-Walker malformation
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Knobloch syndrome
  • Meckel-Gruber syndrome
  • Microcephaly
  • Other neural tube defects
  • Polycystic kidneys
  • Polydactyly