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San Diego, CA 92108-2134
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Diagram showing the various neuropathies of the foot: medial plantar, lateral plantar, saphenous, calcaneal, and sural. (Contributed by Dr. Asa Wilbourn.)
Epilepsy & Seizures
Nov. 29, 2020
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Nystagmus refers to rhythmic involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes. Visual loss or ophthalmoparesis may be present. It may be physiologic or pathologic, and congenital or acquired.
Feb. 13, 2020
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder mediated by specific IgG autoantibodies to the GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor. Most patients present with neuropsychiatric symptoms that progress to include seizures, movement disorders, autonomic dysfunction, and decreased level of consciousness. The underlying mechanism of the disorder is a reversible antibody-mediated reduction of synaptic NMDA receptors.
May. 12, 2021
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Phenylketonuria is caused by deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, an enzyme in the intermediary metabolism of the amino acid, phenylalanine, and is one of the most common inborn errors of metabolism. Untreated phenylketonuria produces the gradual onset of profound developmental disability in most, but not all, individuals. Neonatal screening allows for the early detection and treatment of infants with the disorder.
Apr. 01, 2021
Mar. 07, 2021
Risks to the nervous system from radiation therapy include radiation necrosis, cerebrovascular disease, cognitive deficits, endocrinopathies, encephalopathy, myelopathy, plexopathy, radiculopathy, neuropathy, and secondary tumors. Late complications of radiation therapy are generally progressive and may be permanent.
Aug. 06, 2021
Acute pandysautonomia is characterized by acute onset of severe and disabling autonomic failure affecting sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric functions. Other portions of the nervous system may be involved less frequently: brain, somatic sensory, and rarer motor nerve fibers. Initial nonspecific symptoms of lethargy and fatigue are followed by autonomic symptoms: orthostatic lightheadedness and orthostatic hypotension leading to vasovagal syncope, blurring of vision, abdominal distension, pain, and dryness of eyes, voiding difficulty with or without nocturia or urinary retention, and various degrees of anhidrosis may coexist.
Nov. 09, 2020
Hypertensive encephalopathy is a syndrome in which altered mental status, headache, vision changes, and/or seizures accompany elevated blood pressure. Failure of cerebral autoregulation from a sudden elevation of blood pressure results in endothelial injury and vasogenic edema. Early recognition and correction of hypertension often results in reversal of the encephalopathy; without prompt treatment, permanently damaging ischemia or hemorrhage may result.
Nov. 05, 2021