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Note periodic constrictions. (approximately x100,000) (Contributed by Dr. David Geldmacher.)
Epilepsy & Seizures
Feb. 18, 2021
Epileptic spasms are a peculiar seizure type that usually manifest in infants as West syndrome. These seizures characteristically occur in daily clusters on awakening, and individual spasms typically manifest with a brief axial contraction, with simultaneous extension of the arms, and intermixed limbic phenomena, such as fear and crying. They are often accompanied by severely abnormal interictal epileptiform patterns and demand prompt diagnosis and treatment.
May. 07, 2018
Corticobasal degeneration (CBGD) is one of the atypical parkinsonian syndromes or Parkinsonism-plus syndromes that can mimic Parkinson disease, but it is distinct because of the added features of apraxia, dysphasia, cortical sensory signs, unusual dystonic postures, involuntary movements such as myoclonus, and “alien limb” sign. The pathological hallmark is the deposition of abnormally hyper-phosphorylated microtubule associated protein tau in various parts of the brain. CBGD inevitably progresses slowly and is invariably fatal.
Jan. 31, 2021
Insomnia appears in several forms: (1) difficulty initiating sleep, (2) repeated or lengthy awakenings, (3) early awakenings, (4) inadequate total sleep time, or (5) poor quality of sleep as reflected by its consequences, including daytime sleepiness. The ICSD-3 defines 3 different classification systems for insomnia: chronic insomnia disorder, short-term insomnia disorder, and other insomnia disorder. Complications of insomnia include impaired responses to infections, increase in inflammation, higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and other biomarkers related to fatigue and poor health.
Oct. 11, 2020
Antibody-mediated epilepsies show abrupt onset of frequent focal seizures with neuropsychiatric features. They may be caused by antibodies directed against the extracellular surface of neuronal proteins.
Jul. 05, 2021
General Child Neurology
Acute cerebellar ataxia in children typically presents with sudden onset of unsteadiness, gait difficulties, and nystagmus, usually following an acute viral illness or vaccination. Headache, photophobia, and lightheadedness may also occur. Varicella, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza, and mycoplasma can be causes.
Apr. 05, 2021
May. 07, 2020
Oct. 11, 2019