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(Contributed by Dr. R L Wollmann, University of Chicago.)
Apr. 03, 2021
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Topiramate is a monosaccharide derivative with a sulfamate functionality. It is used as an add-on therapy to other antiepileptic drugs with the aim of controlling seizures as completely as possible. Those who tolerate topiramate have a good chance of seizure control. It is indicated for use in partial-onset seizures in adults and prophylaxis of migraine.
Jul. 11, 2021
May. 28, 2021
Oct. 13, 2020
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy can manifest with protruding scapulae, difficulty raising the arms (often asymmetrically) and lifting objects, and progresses to include truncal muscles as well as lower extremity muscles. About 20% of patients are wheelchair dependent after age 50. Inheritance is autosomal dominant in most with a high incidence of sporadic cases due to de novo mutations.
Dec. 28, 2020
Manifestations of drug-induced myopathy range from muscle pain and stiffness, to muscle weakness and myokymia, to rhabdomyolysis in severe cases. Muscle tissue is sensitive to drugs due to its high metabolic activity and potential sites for disruption of energy-producing pathways, with elevated serum creatine kinase being the most sensitive indicator of muscle damage.
Oct. 08, 2020
Neurocutaneous syndromes are a diverse group of congenital developmental diseases that affect the nervous system and the skin and have systemic lesions in multiple organ systems, including bone, endocrine glands, eye, kidney, heart, and lung. They can produce benign tumors as well as malignancies. Genetic mutations are identified in most of these syndromes.
Apr. 08, 2020
Neurosyphilis is the occurrence of neurologic complications due to infection with Treponema pallidum. The spectrum of neurosyphilis is broad. The most common form of neurosyphilis currently diagnosed is asymptomatic neurosyphilis. Among the symptomatic disorders of neurosyphilis, the earliest manifestation is syphilitic meningitis, which typically occurs within the first 12 months of infection and may accompany features of secondary syphilis.
Oct. 24, 2020