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Sagittal T2-weighted image of a cervical spinal cord showing an extensive area of T2 hyperintensity (arrow) with associated cord expansion. (Contributed by Dr. Brenda Banwell.)
Dec. 15, 2020
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Vascular syndromes of the spinal cord are grouped into spinal cord infarction or transient ischemia syndromes, spinal cord hemorrhagic syndromes, and spinal vascular malformations. Pain is a disabling long-term complication in many patients, independent of motor function recovery. Complications include urinary tract infections or sepsis; pressure sores; autonomic dysreflexia; urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunction; renal dysfunction; chronic pain; deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism; respiratory dysfunction; and psychological or psychiatric manifestations.
Aug. 25, 2020
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Not all hyperammonemia is caused by acquired liver disease. Consider vascular liver bypass, medications, and metabolic diseases. The clinical manifestations of hyperammonemia are dependent on the cause, the age of the individual, and the rapidity with which ammonia accumulates. Early detection of hyperammonemia and treatment are essential because the duration of hyperammonemia is positively correlated with long-term neurologic complications.
Jan. 26, 2021
Femoral neuropathy presents, often acutely, with thigh weakness, numbness, and variable pain. Hip flexion weakness is observed in more proximal lesions. Most femoral neuropathies are caused by iatrogenic compression of the nerve either in the pelvis or beneath the inguinal ligament. Nerve conduction studies and needle EMG are useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.
Aug. 20, 2021
Jan. 09, 2021
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is a disease caused by various mutations in the mitochondrial genome and, as such, is inherited only via the maternal ovum as spermatozoa do not have mitochondria. It usually manifests as sequential binocular acute painless vision loss in sons of carrier mothers. The typical vision loss pattern is decreased visual acuity, with most patients seeing 20/200 or worse, a visual field defect involving the blind spot, and central fixation (cecocentral scotoma).
Dec. 19, 2020
Sixth nerve palsy often presents with binocular horizontal diplopia, worse in the field of action of the paretic lateral rectus muscle. Ischemia, head trauma, and compression by a mass lesion are the most common causes in adults.
Jan. 12, 2000
Epilepsy & Seizures
Aphasic seizures are a specific type of inhibitory seizure, thus, they do not cause positive symptoms but disrupt ongoing cognitive tasks involving language. Aphasic status epilepticus should be considered in patients with transient and sustained aphasia not better explained by acute acquired brain lesion (stroke). EEG and brain imaging can help differentiate an aphasic seizure from aphasia due to other causes.
Feb. 02, 2014