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This hematoxylin and eosin preparation shows loss of papillary architecture and malignant cells. Elsewhere, there were large areas of necrosis. (Contributed by Dr. Sherman Stein.)
Headache & Pain
Apr. 18, 2021
Aqueductal stenosis refers to narrowing of the cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius, where cerebrospinal fluid flow is restricted but still occurs, resulting in dilatation of the lateral and third ventricles increased intraventricular pressure. It is the most common cause of congenital hydrocephalus. It may result in potentially reversible thinning of the cerebral mantle and corpus callosum, and may be progressive, debilitating, or fatal.
Sep. 06, 2021
The classic brain tumor headache has been described as severe, early morning, or nocturnal headache with nausea and vomiting, although associated headache characteristics can vary. The etiology of headache associated with intracranial neoplasms is multifactorial, including direct physical structural changes, tumor secretions, and side effects of treatment.
Apr. 21, 2020
Jul. 12, 2021
Mar. 20, 2021
Epilepsy & Seizures
Manifestations of epilepsy with myoclonic absences include abrupt onset of absences, accompanied by bilateral rhythmic myoclonic jerks of severe intensity, and loss of consciousness that may be complete or partial. Episodes may last from 10 to 60 seconds, and may occur many times a day. Hyperventilation, awakening, and stimulation by intermittent light can precipitate the attack. Average age of onset is 7 years, with about half of affected children being normal and half mentally retarded prior to onset.
Feb. 13, 2014
Sep. 15, 2021
Alcohol can have sedating effects on sleep initially, but can become sleep disruptive with chronic use. Insomnia in abstinent alcoholics is a common clinical problem that can increase the risk of relapse, along with other sleep disturbances. Alcohol use also exacerbates existing sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea. Its effect on REM sleep appears to be dose related, with significant reductions in REM sleep in the first part of the night.
Jan. 12, 2021