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Chemical structure of organophosphate nerve agent A-234

(a) Organophosphate structural backbone of Novichok agents. R=alkyl, alkoxy, aklylamino, or fluorine. X=halogen (F, Cl, Br) or pseudohalogen (CN). (b) Chemical structure of A-234 as described by Mirzayanov (Smithson et al 1995; Mirzayanov 2008). (c) Chemical structure of A-234 as described by Hoenig and Ellison (Hoenig 2006; Ellison 2008).

(Source: Chai PR, Hayes BD, Erickson TB, Boyer EW. Novichok agents: a historical, current, and toxicological perspective. Toxicol Commun 2018;2[1]:45-8. Creative Commons Attribution License,

References cited:
Ellison DH. Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. 2. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis Group, 2008.
Hoenig SL. Compendium of Chemical Warfare Agents. New York, NY: Springer, 2006.
Mirzayanov VS. State Secrets: An Insider's Chronicle of the Russian Chemical Weapons Program. Denver: Outskirts Press, 2008.
Smithson AE, Mirzayanov VS, Lajoie R, Krepon M. Chemical Weapons Disarmament in Russia: Problems and Prospects. Report number 17. Washington, DC: The Henry L. Stimson Center; 1995:1-83.