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  • Nearly 3,000 illustrations, including video clips of neurologic disorders.

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Fumarate to S-malate conversion through a carbanion intermediate

Mechanism of conversion of fumarate to S-malate by fumarase through a carbanion intermediate. Illustration by Bradley Riley, 2010. (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. Public domain.)

Associated Disorders

  • Dystonia
  • Infantile spasms