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(Contributed by Dr. Isaac Silverman.)
May. 07, 2020
Headache & Pain
Migraine and epilepsy are nosologically similar and both encompass 4 phases in their attacks: premonitory, aura, ictal, and resolution. They are clinically related disorders because migraine may follow (postictal migraine) or trigger (migralepsy) seizure attacks. Patients with migraine have a higher chance of also having epilepsy. Data suggest the comorbidity of migraine and epilepsy may have shared genetic links altering cerebral excitability.
Apr. 27, 2020
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
Jun. 12, 2020
Nov. 07, 2020
Acute necrotizing hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis is a disorder that often follows a virus or mycoplasma infection and evolves rapidly to coma and death. Lesions are hemorrhagic, with fibrinoid necrosis and polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration that is associated with demyelination. The devastating immune response may be from excess sensitization to 1 or more unknown antigens. COVID-19 infection induces acute necrotizing hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.
Mar. 26, 2021
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a hereditary group of disorders with intrafamilial and interfamilial variations in clinical presentations. Most cases present with a slowly progressive gait disturbance of insidious onset. Spasticity of the lower limbs, which can be slightly asymmetrical, occurs in the absence of limb weakness and is often only demonstrable on walking. Additional neurologic features such as cognitive impairment, ataxia, dysarthria, neuropathy, or seizures are seen in more than half of cases and can be the presenting feature.
Nov. 20, 2020
Epilepsy & Seizures
This article includes discussion of Jacksonian seizures, Bravais-Jacksonian seizures, and Jacksonian march seizures (with local spread). The foregoing
May. 19, 2021
Paraneoplastic retinopathy is a rare entity associated with a variety of neoplasms, most commonly small cell lung carcinoma or melanoma. In most patients with cancer-associated paraneoplastic retinopathy, subacute vision loss is the presenting feature of the malignancy, whereas the majority of patients with melanoma-associated paraneoplastic retinopathy develop vision loss after the melanoma diagnosis.
Jul. 27, 2021