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Each lesion represents a separate nidus of infection that has disseminated from the initial site of inoculation. (Contributed by Dr. John Halperin.)
Jul. 12, 2021
Epilepsy & Seizures
Atonic seizures are epileptic attacks characterized by a sudden loss or diminution of muscle tone, which may be fragmentary, confined to a segment, or massive, leading to a slumping to the ground. They may have a generalized or focal origin, and may be brief (drop seizures) with patients able to stand up immediately if they fall; or prolonged (akinetic seizures), lasting from one to several minutes, where the patient falls to the ground and remains mute and motionless.
Aug. 01, 2019
Leptomeningeal metastasis involves multiple segments of the CNS axis, with features including increased intracranial pressure and cranial and spinal nerve coating leading to dysfunction. It is caused by seeding of tumor cells to the cerebrospinal fluid and leptomeninges.
Oct. 24, 2020
Hemifacial spasm is a peripherally induced movement disorder characterized by repetitive clonic or more sustained spasms that synchronously affect muscles innervated by the facial nerve. Compression of the facial nerve at its junction with the brainstem, by vascular or other structures, appears to cause secondary hyperexcitability of the facial nucleus that seems to underlie most cases of hemifacial spasm.
Apr. 26, 2020
Spinal meningioma is a rare tumor usually presenting with chronic progressive radicular or myelopathic symptoms and back pain. The authors discuss the
Jan. 24, 2021
Chronic pain encompasses a spectrum of clinical scenarios involving both peripheral and central pain syndromes. In this article, the author discusses
Jan. 31, 2021
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Cortical blindness refers to visual loss due to bilateral lesions of the geniculocalcarine pathways in the brain. Patients may or may not be aware of their visual deficits, and if unaware, the clinical presentation is termed “Anton syndrome.” It can be caused by a variety of disorders, including vascular, infectious, metabolic, or other etiologies.
Jun. 06, 2018
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes bradykinesia, rest tremor, rigidity, and imbalance due to progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Nonmotor symptoms may include dementia, psychosis, orthostatic hypotension, and abnormalities of mood, sleep, and autonomic function.
Feb. 13, 2021