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Computed tomography of brain showing intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient with eclampsia. (Contributed by Dr. Ravindra Kumar Garg.)
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Nov. 01, 2020
Vitamin B12 deficiency typically presents with either hematologic or neurologic signs, which may be dissociated. Well-recognized neurologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency include myelopathy, peripheral polyneuropathy, optic neuropathy, psychiatric disturbances, and dementia. When present, the hematologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency include macrocytic anemia, hyper-segmentation of neutrophil nuclei, neutropenia, and megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow.
Jan. 22, 2021
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
The retinopathies and choroidopathies are a group of eye conditions that can cause central and peripheral visual loss, fundus changes, and electrophysiologic changes. Key signs of retinal disease are positive photostress test, minimal Marcus Gunn pupil in the involved eye, and maculopathies or retinitis pigmentosa on visual field test. Retinal imaging modalities such as optical coherence tomography can help identify retinal disorders and distinguish them from optic nerve disorders.
Jul. 25, 2020
Porencephalies are focal cavitary lesions frequently communicating with the lateral ventricles; they result from brain destruction during late fetal or early postnatal developmental stages. The more common etiologic factors are ischemic and hemorrhagic insults, but toxic agents, infections, trauma, and drugs have also been reported. Clinical symptoms include motor deficits, intellectual impairment, and seizures.
Aug. 03, 2021
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B is characterized by slowly progressive peripheral nerve manifestations with distal dominant weakness, sensory loss, and limb deformities. It has an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern and is caused by mutations in the myelin protein zero gene.
Jul. 23, 2021
Epilepsy & Seizures
Generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures are the most dramatic, severe, and common seizures of syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. They manifest with violent generalized convulsions, loss of consciousness, and marked autonomic disturbances. They are usually spontaneous, but they may also be provoked by external, mainly photic, stimuli. They are often associated with severe complications that may also be fatal.
Jun. 30, 2021
Mar. 29, 2020
Oxcarbazepine is a homologue of the well-known antiepileptic drug carbamazepine. It was developed as an alternative to carbamazepine for patients who had adverse reactions to carbamazepine or diphenylhydantoin. Oxcarbazepine is indicated as a monotherapy for the treatment of partial epilepsy with or without secondary generalization.
Jul. 26, 2021