Sign Up for a Free Account

This is an image preview.
Start a Free Account
to view the full image.

  • Nearly 3,000 illustrations, including video clips of neurologic disorders.

  • Every article is reviewed by our esteemed Editorial Board for accuracy and currency.

  • Full spectrum of neurology in 1,200 comprehensive articles.

Functional organization of basal ganglia output

The basal ganglia are thought of as a “brake” on motor pattern generators in the cortex, via thalamus and brainstem. When a movement is initiated by a specific motor pattern generator, basal ganglia output neurons projecting to competing generators increase their firing rate, thereby increasing inhibition. Other basal ganglia output neurons, projecting to the generators involved in the desired movement, decrease their discharge. This removes tonic inhibition and releases the brake from those desired generators, allowing selection of desired movements while inhibiting competing movements that may interfere with the posture or movement selected. (Mink JW. The basal ganglia and involuntary movements. Arch Neurol 2003;60:1365-68.)

Related Media

Associated Disorders

  • Akinesia
  • Ballism
  • Chorea
  • Dyskinesias
  • Dystonias
  • Hemiballism
  • Hyperkinetic movement disorders
  • Hypokinetic movement disorders
  • Parkinson tremor
  • Stereotypies
  • Tics
  • Tremors