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Comparison of A- and B-wave ratios in a normal ERG versus abnormal ERG under scotopic (dark) conditions. (Contributed by Dr. Rosa Ana Tang.)
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Mar. 02, 2021
Apr. 25, 2020
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Headaches, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile tinnitus are the most frequent early manifestations of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) in adults. Untreated, it can result in optic nerve injury, visual field defects, and blindness. The manifestations of IIH in children differ from those in adults and include asymptomatic papilledema, prominent neck or back pain, diplopia, torticollis, and other focal neurologic signs.
Sep. 02, 2019
HTLV-1 associated myelopathy is a progressive inflammatory myelopathy that typically evolves over decades. Typical features include spastic paraparesis typified by early bladder dysfunction, neuritic pains in the low back and legs, and frequent subtle lower motor neuron findings. Brain and cord MRI with serology and PCR will make the diagnosis. There is only symptomatic treatment for inflammation and spasticity, but no specific etiologic treatment.
Oct. 15, 2020
Aug. 24, 2020
Isolated fourth nerve palsy is a typically benign condition that causes ipsilateral hypertropia in primary gaze that increases on contralateral gaze and ipsilateral head tilt. The most frequent etiologies for isolated fourth nerve palsy are decompensation of a congenital weakness, head or surgical trauma, extra-axial nerve ischemia, nerve inflammation, and local compression by tumor.
Feb. 23, 2021
Feb. 27, 2021
Toxic or nutritional optic neuropathy is classically characterized by gradual painless progressive vision loss, bilateral central or cecocentral scotomas, marked dyschromatopsia, loss of high spatial frequency contrast sensitivity, temporal pallor, and loss of papillomacular bundle. A thorough history of medication use, toxic exposure, substance abuse, dietary deficiency, past surgeries, family history, and peripheral neurologic symptoms should be documented. Early recognition, removal of toxic agents, and supplementation of nutritional deficiencies may lead to protracted visual recovery.
Feb. 13, 2020