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(Contributed by Dr. Rosa Ana Tang.)
Mar. 20, 2021
Neurologic manifestations of Chediak-Higashi syndrome include a parkinsonian syndrome and peripheral neuropathy, which usually occur later in the course of disease. The syndrome is characterized by hypopigmentation, recurrent infections, bleeding, and hematological malignancy. Patients typically have light skin, silver-gray hair, photophobia, and solar sensitivity. Long-term survivors typically have slowly progressive weakness, sensory symptoms, clumsy wide-based gait, and diminished deep tendon reflexes.
Sep. 09, 2021
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a stenotic area. Atherosclerosis causing a stenosis of more than 50% of the carotid diameter is the most common cause of this bruit. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis increases the stroke risk to a slight degree, but the risk is much lower compared to symptomatic patients.
Feb. 10, 2020
Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal with ambulation, typically originating from deep (N3) NREM sleep but sometimes from N2. Episodes typically last only a few minutes, but prolonged episodes can occur, especially in the setting of sedative hypnotic medications. The sleepwalker is usually able to navigate obstacles without difficulty and the eyes are open.
Nov. 20, 2020
Neurologic signs of lumbosacral plexus injuries consist of motor deficit with flaccid paralysis associated with sensory deficits to all types of stimulation in the territory of the damaged nerve roots, or lower motor neuron paralysis. Nonstructural causes include radiation therapy, diabetes, vasculitis, and perivasculitis, while traumatic causes are mainly due to fractures of the pelvic ring or acetabulum and hip joint replacements.
Aug. 09, 2021
Neurologic paraneoplastic disorders are relatively rare but often disabling complications of a variety of systemic neoplasms. Most, if not all, paraneoplastic disorders are believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction against shared "onconeural" antigens, though the exact pathogenesis of most syndromes remains unclear. In most patients with paraneoplastic disorders, the neurologic symptoms are the presenting feature of an otherwise undiagnosed tumor.
Sep. 21, 2020
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Well-known alternative therapies include herbs, homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, Ayurvedic medicine, and Chinese medicine. The most common use of alternative methods for neurologic disorders is for painful conditions such as headache and backache, as well as disorders that do not have an effective treatment. Neurologic adverse effects can result from acupuncture and chiropractic manipulation, as well as herbal and unconventional pharmaceutical preparations.
Jul. 14, 2021
Headache & Pain
Photophobia, blurred vision, tearing, ptosis, visual aura, or ocular pain can be ocular presentations of primary headache. Ocular diseases such as infection, inflammatory disorders, and glaucoma can cause headache, but are rarely the cause of headache if the sclerae are white and noninjected. Patients with vision loss, ophthalmoparesis, or progressive symptoms usually require urgent neuroimaging or referral.
Jan. 17, 2021