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B-scan of sclera that shows acute scleritis in a patient with eye pain. (Contributed by Dr. Rosa Ana Tang.)
Sep. 27, 2020
Epilepsy & Seizures
Generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures are the most dramatic, severe, and common seizures of syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. They manifest with violent generalized convulsions, loss of consciousness, and marked autonomic disturbances. They are usually spontaneous, but they may also be provoked by external, mainly photic, stimuli. They are often associated with severe complications that may also be fatal.
Jun. 30, 2021
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a feature of several neurodevelopmental disorders in which the cerebellum is small in size, but normal in shape. Disorganized development of the cerebellum causes cerebellar dysplasia in which the shape and “texture” of the cerebellum appear abnormal due to the presence of abnormal folia pattern or gray matter nodular heterotopia. Macrocerebellum is a rare malformation that may occur as an isolated finding or as part of a few syndromes.
Sep. 08, 2021
Antibody-mediated epilepsies show abrupt onset of frequent focal seizures with neuropsychiatric features. They may be caused by antibodies directed against the extracellular surface of neuronal proteins.
Jul. 05, 2021
General Child Neurology
Neonatal seizures are seizures occurring within the first 28 days in a full-term infant and extending to the 44 completed weeks gestational age in the preterm infant. Most neonatal seizures are acute reactive seizures, the most common cause in term infants being hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, stroke, or infection. Neonatal onset epilepsy syndromes also exist but are less common.
Nov. 17, 2020
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome presents with fatigue, proximal limb weakness, and diminished muscle stretch reflexes. Small cell lung carcinoma is associated with up to 50% of cases. It is the most common neurologic paraneoplastic disorder in adults.
May. 18, 2017
Vitamin B12 deficiency typically presents with either hematologic or neurologic signs, which may be dissociated. Well-recognized neurologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency include myelopathy, peripheral polyneuropathy, optic neuropathy, psychiatric disturbances, and dementia. When present, the hematologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency include macrocytic anemia, hyper-segmentation of neutrophil nuclei, neutropenia, and megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow.
Jan. 22, 2021
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Sixth nerve palsy often presents with binocular horizontal diplopia, worse in the field of action of the paretic lateral rectus muscle. Ischemia, head trauma, and compression by a mass lesion are the most common causes in adults.
Jan. 12, 2000