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BrainWaves Quanta: The TOLEDO trial

MedLink Neurology Podcast is delighted to feature selected episodes from BrainWaves, courtesy of James E Siegler MD, its originator and host. BrainWaves is an academic audio podcast whose mission is to educate medical providers through clinical cases and topical reviews in neurology, medicine, and the humanities, and episodes originally aired from 2016 to 2021.

Originally released: September 20, 2018

Apomorphine has a more than 20-year history as a therapeutic adjunct in the management of idiopathic Parkinson disease. And yet, no randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to show for it. As of July 2018, now there is. In this week's episode of BrainWaves, Dr. Siegler discusses the relevance, strengths, and weaknesses of the TOLEDO trial.

Produced by James E. Siegler. Music by Ondrosik and Rod Hamilton. Sound effects by Mike Koenig, Daniel Simion. BrainWaves' podcasts and online content are intended for medical education only and should not be used for clinical decision-making. Be sure to follow us on Twitter @brainwavesaudio for the latest updates to the podcast.


Katzenschlager R, Poewe W, Rascol O, et al. Apomorphine subcutaneous infusion in patients with Parkinson's disease with persistent motor fluctuations (TOLEDO): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2018;17(9):749-59. PMID 30055903

We believe that the principles expressed or implied in the podcast remain valid, but certain details may be superseded by evolving knowledge since the episode’s original release date.

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