Sign Up for a Free Account
  • Updated 11.03.2020
  • Released 08.08.2000
  • Expires For CME 11.03.2023



Historical note and terminology

Ziconotide, the synthetic form of cone snail peptide pi (variant) conotoxin MVIIA, is a neuron-specific N-type calcium channel blocker that has been under development for the treatment of severe chronic pain and ischemia. The snail has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. Pliny considered the snail to be "a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds” (Bonnemain 2005).

Pi (variant) peptides that block voltage-sensitive calcium channels were isolated from a species of conus snails in 1991 (Olivera et al 1991). Development of SNX-111 (now ziconotide) for cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury began in 1993, and clinical trials for chronic pain started in 1995. Intrathecal ziconotide for pain was approved by the FDA in 2004 and by the European Medicines Agency in 2005.

This is an article preview.
Start a Free Account
to access the full version.

  • Nearly 3,000 illustrations, 
including video clips of 
neurologic disorders.

  • Every article is reviewed by our esteemed Editorial Board for accuracy and currency.

  • Full spectrum of 
neurology in 1,200 
comprehensive articles.

Questions or Comment?

MedLink, LLC

10393 San Diego Mission Rd, Suite 120

San Diego, CA 92108-2134

Toll Free (U.S. + Canada): 800-452-2400

US Number: +1-619-640-4660